Benign

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    Tumors are abnormal growths in the body. They are made up of extra cells. Normally, old cells die, and new ones take their place. Sometimes, however, this process goes wrong. New cells form even when you don't need them, and old cells don't die when they should. When these extra cells form a mass, it is called a tumor.


    Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Benign tumors grow only in one place. They cannot spread or invade other parts of the body. Even so, they can be dangerous if they press on vital organs, such as your brain. Figure below shows the benign tumour.

The examples for benign tumours are, 

1. Heterotopic bone

2. Keloid

3. Benign brain tumour

4. Granular cell tumors

5.  Neurofibromas

6.  Ganglioneuromas

7.  Paragangliomas

8.  Leiomyomas etc.


Causes of benign tumours:


The causes of benign tumours are listed below,


1. Environmental toxins, such as exposure to radiation

2. Genetics

3. Diet

4. Stress

5. Local trauma or injury

6. Inflammation or infection


Examination and tests:


    Like the symptoms, the signs of tumors vary based on their site and type. Some tumors are obvious, such as skin cancer. However, most cancers cannot be seen during an exam because they are deep inside the body.


    When a tumor is found, a biopsy is performed to determine if the tumor is noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Depending on the location of the tumor, the biopsy may be a simple procedure or a serious operation. Most patients with tumors have CT or MRI scans to determine the exact location of the tumor and how far it has spread. More recently, positron emission tomography (PET) scans have been used to find certain tumor types.



Other tests include:

· Biopsy of the tumor

· Blood tests (to look for chemicals such as tumor markers)

· Bone marrow biopsy (most often for lymphoma or leukemia)

· Chest x-ray 

· Complete blood count (CBC)


Treatment methods:

    In many cases, benign tumors need no treatment. Doctors may simply use "watchful waiting" to make sure they cause no problems. But treatment may be needed if symptoms are a problem. Surgery is a common type of treatment for benign tumors. The goal is to remove the tumor without damaging surrounding tissues. Other types of treatment may include medication or radiation.



Questions:

1. What is the most successful method in treating the benign tumours

a) Radiation therapy

b) Chemotherapy

c) Surgery

d) All


Answer:

1. c) Surgery


References:

1. http://www.webmd.com

2. http://www.nlm.nih.gov

3.http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/259252/large/M2000113-Leiomyoma_benign_tumour_on_patient_s_leg-SPL.jpg 

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