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Diagnostic Methods:

Diagnostic procedure for the lymphoma includes blood tests, liver, kidney performance, and complete physical examination.

Several imaging techniques and other methods are there to find the disease staging and its spread. They are,

1.X-ray Radio graph

2.C.T. Scan

3.MRI Scan


5.PET Scan

6.Gallium Scan

7.Bone marrow examinations


9.Staging of Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma:

  Stage I or early disease is when lymphoma is found in a single lymph node region or in a single organ outside the lymph node.

  Stage II or locally advanced disease is when two or more lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm or one lymph node region and a nearby tissue or organ carries lymphoma.

   Stage III or advanced disease is when two or more lymph nodes or a lymph node and an organ on the opposite side of the body are affected by lymphoma.

   Stage IV or widespread, disseminated disease is when the lymphoma has spread to the spleen, bone marrow, bone, or central nervous system.

Treatment Modalities:

    Lymphoma’s are to be treated by combining the two method of treatment. One is Chemotherapy and another one is Radiation therapy.


    Chemotherapy makes use of chemicals that interfere with the cell division process - damaging proteins or DNA - so that cancer cells will commit suicide. These treatments target any rapidly dividing cells, but normal cells usually can recover from any chemical-induced damage while cancer cells cannot. Chemotherapy in general used to treat cancer that has spread or metastasized because the medicines travel throughout the entire body. Treatment occurs in cycles so the body has time to heal between doses. However, there are still common side effects such as hair loss, nausea, fatigue, and vomiting. Combination therapies often include multiple types of chemotherapy or chemotherapy combined with other treatment options. Radiation:      Radiation treatment, also known as radiation therapy or radiotherapy, destroys cancer by delivering high-energy rays on the cancer cells. This causes destruction to the molecules that make up the cancer cells and leads them to commit suicide. Radiotherapy makes use of high-energy gamma-rays that are emitted from metals such as radium or high-energy x-rays that are created in a special machine. Radiotherapy can be used as an individual treatment to shrink a tumour or destroy cancer cells, and it is also used in combination with other cancer treatments. Side effects of radiation therapy may include mild skin changes resembling sunburn or suntan, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and fatigue. Patients are likely to to lose their appetites and have trouble maintaining weight, but most side effects subside a few weeks after completing treatment.


1.  Treatment modalities for Lymphoma’s includes

a) Chemotherapy

b) Radiation therapy

c) Both a and b

d) Surgery


c) Both a and b






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