When the nucleus of a radioactive nuclide spontaneously gives up its extra energy, this energy is known as ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation may take the form of alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays, or x-rays. The phenomenon of emitting the radiation is called radioactive decay. The sources of radioactive materials
Radiotherapy installations using the radioisotope machines
Nuclear medicine department in a hospital
Research institutes using the radioisotopes
Inherent radiation sources in the earth crust.
All of the above mentioned sources are affecting the environment in certain way; the ways will briefly discussed below.
Nuclear reactors using the radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, plutonium for generating the power production r purposes, nuclear bomb production and other research purposes. When they are using like this plenty of advantages are there however, that much of hazards is also there. If, they are not handled or disposed in secured places this things will affect the environment in potential way. In the Second World War shows the effect of radiation to this world through the explosion of atom bomb. These things will also lead to an environmental hazard if it happens again for several years.
Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Department in a Hospital:
Radiotherapy and Nuclear medicine department are playing a vital role in cancer treatment and its diagnosis. For the treatment purposes radioisotopes are used in general in developing countries in addition to that linear accelerators also in use. Because of this greater use of the radioactive it should special attention is required in maintaining the import, export, and disposal of these sources. In all the country the respective government body is taking the steps to monitor that. However, these sources are causing some environmental effect when they are using for treatment.
Inherent Radiation Sources in Earth Crust:
The inherent radiation sources in earth crust are the other major factor in causing the environmental pollution. Because the radiation is level is different for different parts of the world. Especially kerala costal an area in India is having the natural uranium sources this place is having the natural background radiation than other parts of the country.
The environmental protection can only stabilized or bring to the normal position or in control by reduction in the usage of radioactive materials in day today life in the world.