Hystopathelogic Types

Home > Clinical Concepts In Radiation Oncology >Tumor Classification >Histopathologic Types

Cancer is not just one but many different diseases. Cancer occurs when abnormal cells, having accumulated different mutations, divide without control and are able to invade other tissues.

    There are about 200 different types of cancer, but they all start as a result of the out-of-control growth of abnormal cells. Cancers are classified in two ways: by the type of tissue in which the cancer originates (histological classification) or by the location or organ in the body where the cancer first developed. Most people classify cancer based on the organ in which it starts - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer. However, physicians and health professionals use histological classification because it gives a better indication of how the cancer will behave. For instance, squamous cell carcinoma behaves similarly whether it originates from the lung or the prostate.    
    
Histopathology types:

    Cancer types can be grouped into histological categories, which include:


Benign Tumors:

    Benign tumors are typically slow-growing and rarely spread to other areas of the body.  They often have well-defined borders, so surgical removal can be an effective treatment.  However, the location of a benign brain tumor can have a significant impact on treatment options and be as serious and life-threatening as a malignant tumor.  Benign brain tumors can be considered malignant if they are located in areas of the brain that control vital functions like breathing

    Carcinoma - cancer that originates in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. A majority (close to 90 %) of cancer are carcinoma.
    Leukemia - cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood stream.

    Lymphoma - cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system.  Lymphomas (such as Hopkins disease) are cancer of the lymphocytes (a specialized blood cell that take part in our defense against foreign material such as viruses).

    Myeloma - also a type of cancer that begins in the cells of the immune system.  Myelomas are cancer of the bone marrow, particularly of the cells that produces antibodies.

    Sarcoma - cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.
    Central nervous system specific - cancers that begin in the tissues located in the brain and central nervous system (CNS). Many types exist: glioma, blastoma, CNS lymphoma, etc.

    Mesothelioma - rare form of cancer that develops from the protective lining (called mesothelioma) that covers many of the body's internal organs such as the lining of the lungs, the heart and the abdominal cavity. It is almost always caused by exposure to asbestos.


Questions:

1. What could be the name of the cancer that occurs in soft tissue?

a) Myeloma

b) Mesothelioma

c) Sarcoma

d) Carcinoma


2. Pick out the cancer that grows in immune system?

a) Lung cancer

b) Lymphoma

c) Glioma

d) All


Answers:

1. d) Carcinoma

2. b) Lymphoma


References:

1. www.cancer.org

2. http://www.src-crs.ca

3. http://www.abta.org

Home > Clinical Concepts In Radiation Oncology >Tumor Classification >Histopathologic Types